Aqueducts (Su Kemerleri). Northeast of İzmit, the aqueducts cross vvadis not far from the Old İstanbul Road, which leads to İstanbul via Moiiafeneri. Öztüre mentioned a few more of them that are not shown on the İzmit map, tn Öztüre’s opinion, the Paşasuyu Agueduct in a gulley caiied Bekir- deresi ıs the one that Püny and Trajan discussed by ietter in the second century A D, The canal got its present name from a certain Governor Süleyman Pasha. The network of aqueducts is today too ruinous to transport water. The largest of them spans a deep valley to the northwest of the viliage of Üç Tepeler. This structure has five arches, its çenter portion İs two stories high, and it bends as it crosses the stream. İt cannot be spotted from the road. One way to reach it is to start walking at Üç Tepeler and hike for a totai of about thirty minutes through steep fields to the bottom of the valley. Continue reading
Across the Street from the mospue ıs one ot the prefty fountains ın İzmit. The inscnptıon s’that Mahmut ll’s treasurer, Suadâ or Süen Usta, repaired the fountain in 1826 or ’27.
The Outer Walls. The Romans evidentiy feit that, besides the Citadeb further protection of Nicomedia was necessary. They constructed these outer wa!!s, a curtain that meandered över the spurs and daies just north of the inner fortress, descended to the sea on the eastern and westem ridges, and protected the waterfront. Thus the outer waîls enctosed the inner fortress and the rest of the City that sprawied down the siope to the gulf. The outer walls with their characteristic Roman bricks are visible in vari’ ous pîaces around İzmit, While negoîiating Rasathane Caddesi on the norîhvvestern side of the Citadel, one can look across a ravine at the dark rnass of some remains of the outer vvali. A more extensive portion is in fields beyond the graveyard to the northeast of the Citadel. Avni Öztüre’s and Nezih Fıratif’s books on İzmit include maps which deüneate the positions of the inner and outer vvalls.
The Cıtaüei (also calleci the inner Fortress, İç Hisar Kale, or the Acropohs, Akropol), HTGT: VVıthout a private car one can reach the Cıtadei by foot. taxı or dolmuş; the latter Seave from ın front of Oğuz Sineması on İstanbul Caddesi, and ao up to Orhan Mahallesi. The castle precincts enclose the dıstrict known as Orhan Mahallesi. Its oki wood and plaster houses, ıts Ictîuce patches and crovving roosters, and its magnıticent vıevvs of bay and mountams make this quarter pictaresguc for strolling. The first walls to emele the Acropolıs were doubtîess Helenıstıc. Continue reading
Old Turkish House. li ıs beside Yem Turan School. Other attractive old houses can be seen m the tıarrow vvinding streets that go up to the Acropohs.
Roman Fountain (Nymphaion). The monumental marble fountain had columns and Connthian capitals.
Mansion (Konak) of Sim Pasha. Anyone interested in this prîvate residence can peer at ıt thıough an iron gate on the Street. The house ıs on enchanting wooden structure with a tower-room having a porch and a romanda view of the bay. The mansion has carved wooden banısters along the staircases and some fme ceıiıngs, one of vvhıch has vvooden stalachtes The house ıs a bit creaKy, and of course maıntenance and heating are dıfhcıht. The fırst owner was Sırrı Pasha, who lıved from 1851 to 1924 and was an official in the Office of pubüc works ana therı a governor ot İzmit. Among other ucmevenents, he planted and vvatched over the plane tıees along the raıiway, he draıned a swamp, and he pushed the construcuon of the Ankara Highway to ıts conciusıon. Continue reading
Railroad Avenue (Demiryolu Caddesi). The avenue used to be called Tököli İmre Bulvarı ın honor of a Transylvanian prince whose original name was Emerle Thökely. He spent his last years in İzmît in voluntary exile. He died in 1705; his bones were later removed from İzmit to Hungary. In 1902 the name of the avenue was changed to Hamidiye Bulvarı to mark the twenty-fifth anniversary of Sultan Abdülhamit’s reign, More recently it has been named Ziya Tekeli and Hürriyet Caddesi. Nevertheless lis common name is Demiryolu Caddesi. 3-12 Atatürk Monument (Anıt), The bronze statue shows Atatürk, dressed in soldier’s uniform, facing the bay in heroic attitude. Necat Sirel creoted it for the tenth birthday of the Republic. Incised on the marble pedestal is part of a speech Atatürk delivered in İzmit. 6-13 Clock Tovver (Saat Kulesi). Like some other Ottoman cities, the City of İzmit ereeted a clock tovver to celebrate Abdülhamit’s tvventy- fifth anniversary (1902) on the throne. This is one of the more charming such tovvers in the nation. Four stories high, it has clocks on ali four faces. Continue reading
Necropolis with Underground Tombs or Hypogea (Yeraltı mezarları, also called Kırkmeşe hipojeleri). The graves are to be found in the Kırkmeşe-Zeytinlik district on Gültepe hıll side. One of the tombs is close to the top of the hill, near a watertower made from the tank of a truck. Though there were reputed to be paintings in this grave, I saw only a patch of red paint as big as a silver dollar. The necropolis was disappointing, but perhaps oniy needed more thorough exp!oration than I gave it. Villagers State that the hill is a catacomb full of tunnels and graves. On his map of İzmit, Nezih Fıratiı marked another ancient hypogeum on the hill above the cistern of Diocletian.
Paper Factory. İt occupies a large area opposite Matlaştır Bayın. The factory, founded in 1934, ıs a well-known landmark in İzmit.
Diocletian’s Palace. The large hole ol this site ıs contıguous to the Insurance Hospital (Sigorta Hastahanesi). The palace used to extend under a part of the hospital. The valuables that were discovered during excavations for the hospital construction were removed to the Archaeologıcal Museum.
The Cifede! beiongs mamly to Byzantine times, although much was repaired by the Ottomans. Monastery of St. Pandeleımon, originaly a Byzantine Church; vanished now.
The Outer Wails that protected the Citadei and town were Roman, though much has been repaired in later times. B-25 The Agueducts were Roman, or some were possibly built later in Byzantine times; they have been subsequently repaired. 3-8 Shipyards; ali through Roman. Byzantine, Ottoman and modern times there have been shipyards along the shore at İzmit. A-2 Temple of Augustus Caesar, 29 B.C. C-30 Covered Cistern of Diocletian, beginning of 4th century A.D.
Babadağ is the high point ot the excursion, the most conmanding prominence around, A mausoleum of eye-catching modern design, planted on the summit, can be identified from a dıstance. Visıtors to Babadağ in the month af May wiii sse favender-coiored rhododendron bluoming on the slopes. Continue reading